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Choosing a DOCTYPE

According to HTML standards, each HTML document requires a document type declaration. The "DOCTYPE" begins the HTML document and tells a parser which version of the HTML instructions to use.

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "ISO/IEC 15445:2000//DTD HTML//EN">

All documents conforming to the International Standard also conform to the W3C Recommendation for HTML 4.01. ISO-HTML omits all deprecated features of the language, features whose role is purely cosmetic, and features which are still unstable or immature. This is in keeping with recognized good SGML practice.

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/strict.dtd">

This declares the document to be HTML 4.0 Strict. Strict emphasizes structure over presentation. Deprecated elements and attributes, frames, and link targets are not allowed in HTML 4.0 Strict.

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">

This declares the document to be HTML 4.01 Transitional. Transitional adds presentational attributes, deprecated elements, and link targets to HTML 4.01 Strict.

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Frameset//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/frameset.dtd">

This declares the document to be HTML 4.0 Frameset. HTML 4.0 Frameset is a variant of HTML 4.0 Transitional for documents that use frames.

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 3.2 Final//EN">

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML//EN">

<meta> tags

<meta name="keywords" content="key, words">
256 Characters Maximum to avoid truncation. Try to place within first 25 words of document. Keywords should appear in body text. Keywords occuring more than nine times in body may cause page to be ignored. Try to arrange keywords in same order that a search request might be typed. Include common misspellings of words to increase hit rate.

<meta name="summary" content="textual description of web page">
100 Characters Maximum to avoid truncation. This also indexed.

The <title> tags should appear here to optimize for certain search engines.

<base href=" http:⁄⁄ (root_web_address )⁄ " >

This head tag gives browsers the complete URL and path of all pages and components on web sites where relative local links (ones that don't start with http://...) are used. It should be used wherever possible on sites with this type of file structure to ensure viewers can bookmark any sub page on the site.

<meta name="description" content="textual description of web page">

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text⁄html; charset=iso-8859-1" >

<meta http-equiv="title" content="Page Title" >

<meta name="Author" content="Marc Collins">

<meta name="Address" content="myself@netcourier.com">

<meta http-equiv="Reply-To" content="myself@netcourrier.com">

<meta name="revisit-after" content="30 days">

Low values will cause search engines to ignore

<meta name="classification" content="Business to Business">
Open ended. Best to base this on Yahoo! classification

<meta http-equiv="refresh" content=" x">
This is used for some types of animation. Value 'x' is in Seconds. A low value will cause pages to be ignored by search engines. Individual page can be hiden from search bots by next meta tag, or see refresh JavaScript below.

<meta name="robots" content="all">
<meta name="distribution" content="IU">
<meta name="copyright" content="Marc Collins 1997-2001">

<meta name="language" content="English">

<meta http-equiv="Window-target" content="_top">
<!--This META tag is part 1 of the manual break out of frames code-->
<A HREF="index.html" target="_main">Click here to out of someone else's frames</a>
<!--This Anchor tag is part 2 and must be inlcuded in the BODY section-->

Messing with Spambots

Spambots are programs that crawl all web sites collecting email addresses in mailto links. They are optimized for speed, so they do not take the time to parse Javascript. The following JavaScript code makes email address invisible to these automated collection tools. For additional security, it is a good idea keep one's primary address private and use an alternate one meant only for web site contacts.
<script language="JavaScript" type="text/javascript">
<!--
    user = "MemberName";
    site = "domain.org";
    subj = "?subject=Contact from the Web Page";
    clos = "</";
    clo2= "a>";
    atsign= "@";
    document.write('<a href=\"mailto:'+user+atsign+site+subj+'\">'+user+atsign+site+clos+clo2);
// -->
</script>

Windowing tricks

<meta http-equiv="pragma" content="no-cache" >
Forces browser to get most current version of page each time, even if time stamp on server and local cache are the same. Mandatory for certain types of dynamic sites, specially those generated by server applications
<a target=_blank>a to force anchor target into a new browser session in new window.

<a target="_main">a to force anchor target main window

Automatic Java Script to break out of a frame
<script language="JavaScript" type="text⁄javascript">
<!--
if (window != top) top.location.href = location.href;
⁄⁄ -->
<⁄script>

<meta http-equiv="refresh" content=" x ; URL=http:⁄⁄Go_Here_Instead.com">

Use this meta tag as a automatic redirect to another page. The 'x' represents the number of seconds to wait and is usually set to zero or a very low value. Note that some browsers allow users to disable this feature, so the body must include a link to the desired site.

JavaScript based page refresher
<script language="JavaScript" type="text⁄javascript">
<!--
setTimeout("location.replace('http:⁄⁄www.yourpage.com')",4000);
⁄⁄-->
<⁄script>

e-Commerce Performance Metrics:

Keyboard Shortcuts:

   Switch between running applications:
	  Press Tab repeatedly while holding Alt.

   Switch easily between a full-screen and windowed command prompt:
	  Press Alt - Enter.

   Open the Start Menu:
	  Press Ctrl - ESC.

   Tab (move from one control to another) in reverse:
	  Hold Shift while pressing Tab.

   Send the active window to the back:
	  Press Alt - ESC.

   Move to the next tab in a tabbed dialog box:
	  Hold Ctrl while pressing Tab.

   Send the focus to the menu:
	  Press Alt by itself, and use the cursor keys to navigate.

   Keyboard equivalents of Undo, Cut, Copy, and Paste:
	  Hold Ctrl while pressing Z, X, C, and V, respectively. In many
	  applications, the following will also work: Alt-Backspace, Shift-Del,
	  Ctrl-Ins, and Shift-Ins, respectively.

   Expand all the directories in a a branch in Explorer:
	  Select the desired branch in Explorer, and press * (the asterisk key).
	  If Desktop is selected, all directories in all drives will be expanded.

   Switch to the TaskBar
	  Press Ctrl-ESC at any time to bring up the Start Menu.
	  Once the Start Menu appears, press ESC to close the menu while keeping
	  the Taskbar active. Then, press Tab to switch to the row(s) of running
	  applications on the Taskbar.

   Switch to the Desktop:
	  Follow the above directions to Switch to the Taskbar.
	  Press Tab again to switch to the Desktop.

   Right-click (display an object's context menu):
      Make sure the desired object has the focus, and press Shift-F10.

Better Floppy Formats:

   Although you can right-click on a floppy drive in Explorer or My Computer
   and select Format to format a floppy, there's a better way.

   Type Format a: /u at the MS-DOS prompt (substitute A: for whatever
   drive letter you wish).  Using DOS instead of Windows to format floppies
   will yield better multitasking, meaning you'll be able to do other things
   while formatting floppies (strange how it multitasks DOS better
   than Windows).

   Furthermore, using the /u paramter specifies an unconditional format,
   meaning that it won't save unformat information, yielding a faster format
   and more free diskette space.

   To simply erase a floppy, type Format a: /u/q - this is much quicker
   than a full format, but will not ensure an error-free disk (see General
   Troubleshooting Techniques for more information). Remember, if Format
   reports any bad sectors, throw away that floppy immediately.
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This file last modified: 2009/04/03
The current date is: 2017/08/17 15:03

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